• Ankle Sprain
  • Arthritic Hand
  • Ataxia
  • Autism


    As autism is a developmental disorder. The treatment therapy differs from child to child, just as the symptoms of the disorder would differ from one child to another. And hence, knowing about the signs and symptoms of the condition — physical, developmental, psychological, social or emotional — will help in deciding the treatment option.’ The underlying principle of therapy is to focus on the core areas affected by autism, which could include social skills, language and communication problems, imitation, play skills, activities of daily living and motor skills- both gross and fine. Here are some of the many goals that are taken into consideration while treating autism.
    • To improve postural control to increase stability during fine motor, gross motor, and self-care activities.
    • To improve static balance to improve motor control and attention and decrease impulsivity.
    • To maximise sensory processing and organisation skills to improve controlled motor skills.
    • To address misalignments in the musculoskeletal system, such as chest wall deformities, and foot and ankle misalignments.
    • To treat impairments in other vital systems that impact motor function, such as problems with respiratory control and coordination.
    • To learn to perform ideation, sequencing, timing and execution components of motor planning.
    • To lay down the foundations of gross motor skills to support participation in community and peer activities.
  • Back Pain

    Back Pain Rehabilitation

    Back pain is one of the most common medical problems, affecting 8 out of 10 people at some point during their lives. Back pain can be a short and severe episode or a long on-going chronic or a recurrent pain. It can severely interfere with your work and daily activities. Back pain can affect your muscles and make you weak and can even lead to mild depression


    There are several causes for back-related problems including:
    • A mentally or physically stressful job
    • Pregnancy (a pregnant woman is much more likely to suffer from back pain)
    • A sedentary lifestyle
    • Age (older adults are more susceptible than young adults or children)
    • Anxiety
    • Depression
    • Gender (back pain is more common amongst females than males)
    • Obesity/overweight
    • Smoking
    • strenuous physical exercise (especially if not done correctly)

    Our Solution

    The Back-Care treatment program may consist of:
    • Core stabilisation exercises
    • Correction of body mechanics
    • Joint mobilisation/manipulation
    • Postural correction
    • Soft tissue mobilisation
    • Stretching/flexibility exercises
    • Traction

    Who can benefit?

    Individuals having any of the following conditions can benefit from our back-pain rehabilitation therapy:
    • Acute, chronic back or neck pain
    • Spinal stenosis
    • Degenerative disc disease
    • Herniated disc
    • Post-surgical pain
    • Sacral dysfunctions (SI joint)
    • Sciatica
    • Spondylolisthesis
    • Scoliosis

    Checks program

    We can develop a treatment program that best fits each patient’s requirements but first you would need to undergo one of the following checks:
    • The Complete Back and Neck Check (120 mins)
    • The Functional Back Check (90 mins)
    • The Functional Neck Check (90 mins)


    Some of the benefits of our programs include:
    • Pain reduction
    • Higher physical functionality
    • Improved flexibility
    • Increased endurance
    • Improved mood
  • Balance Impairment

    Balance impairment

    Balance is defined as a ‘complex process involving the reception and integration of sensory inputs, planning and execution of movements, to achieve a goal requiring upright posture’.
    It is the ability to control the COG (centre of gravity) over the BOS (base of support) in a given sensory environment.
    Posture: The term posture is often used to describe both Biomechanical alignment of the body as well as Orientation of the body to environment.

    Balance impairment may be resulting from:

    Neurological conditions: head injury, brain tumor, cranial nerve injuries, etc
    Musculoskeletal conditions: weakness of the muscles, proprioceptive sensation weakness, joint dysfunction or due to joint deformity
    Psychological conditions: Cognitive & behavioral factors like Attention, Cognition, Judgment, Memory, Depression, Emotional liability, Agitation.close
  • Bells Palsy
  • Blisters
  • Bursitis


    Bursitis is a painful condition that affects the bursae (small fluid filled sacs) that cushions the bones, tendons and muscles near the joints. Bursitis occurs when bursae becomes inflamed.
    It often occurs near joints that perform frequent repetitive motion, like:
    - Throwing a baseball or lifting something over your head repeatedly
    - Leaning on your elbow for long periods
    - Excessive kneeling for tasks such as laying carpet or scrubbing floors
    - Prolonged sitting, particularly on hard surface
    Most common locations for bursitis are: Shoulder, Elbow, and Hip. But it can also happen in your knee, heel and the base of the big toe.
    Symptoms: The affected joint may:
    - Feel stiff or achy
    - Hurt more when you move it
    - Looks swollen and red
    - Sharp or shooting pain, especially when you exert yourself or exercises

    At AktivOrtho, our Treatment will include:

    - Assessment of ‘How you move’ or your biomechanics.
    - Recommendation and supervision of specific exercises (Stretches or Strengthening) to reduce pain and improve ability to move plus prevent the recurrence.
    Untreated bursitis can result in calcification (Bone growing) within the bursa and even nastier pain and disability.close
  • Cerebal Palsy

    Cerebral palsy

    Cerebral palsy means ‘brain paralysis’. It is a disability that affects movement and body position. It occurs from brain damage that happened before the baby was born, at birth, or as a baby. The whole brain is not damaged, only parts of it, mainly parts that control movements. Once damaged, the parts of the brain do not recover, nor do they get worse.


    • 2-4/1000; new babies each year
    • During past 3 decade considerable advances made in obstetric & neonatal care, but unfortunately there has been virtually no change in incident of CP

    Causes of Cerebral palsy

    • Prenatal (70%): Infection, anoxia, toxic drugs intake, Rh disease, congenital malformation of brain
    • Natal (5-10%): hypoxia, traumatic delivery, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, asphyxia
    • Post-natal: Trauma, infection, toxicity.

    Early Signs of Cerebral Palsy

    • Birth History: Premature birth, Seizures, Low apgars, Intracranial haemorrhage.
    • Delayed Milestones
    • Abnormal Motor Performance: Handedness; Reptilian crawl; Toe waking.
    • Altered Tone (hypotonic/ hypertonic/rigidity)
    • Persistence of primitive reflexes.
    • Abnormal posturing
    • Abnormal walking pattern
    The ultimate and long term goal of treatment of CP gaining independence in activities of daily living, school or work and social life. Provide community and social support.
    The short term goals of treatment of CP: Education of parents and care givers, Positioning and handling, Normalization of tone, Prevention of deformity and contracture, Training for problems related with sensory integration, Providing assistive adaptive devices and training for proper use, Gait training and hand functionclose
  • Childhood Obesity

    Childhood Obesity

    Obesity occurs when the energy intake exceeds energy expenditure. Genetic factors, lifestyle preferences, environmental factors, sleep cycles and cultural environment are significant factors that influence obesity. While changes in a child’s diet and eating habits have contributed to increasing global levels of pediatric overweight and obesity, experts now have accepted that physical inactivity is the major contributor.
    1 in every 10 children is obese. Overweight and obese children have a higher risk of becoming overweight teenagers and adults. They also have a greater risk of developing heart disease and diabetes later in life.
    Being overweight can also lead to psychosocial pressures, stress and low self-esteem. This in turn can decrease academic performance and concentration.
    Prevention of obesity is an important lifestyle change with the introduction of just simple and effective measures such as encouraging the child to participate in active play. Also, enjoying physical activity as a family can be highly inspiring and contagious to the growing buds. Activities such as walking, cycling, swimming, dancing and playing outdoor games are good options.

    It is recommended that structured physical activity sessions for children must be conducted under the supervision of qualified personnel in a safe environment. Exercise sessions must include proper 5-10 minutes of dynamic warm up period such as jumps, hops, skips and movements involving the upper and lower body. Comprehensive exercises must be included as per goal and needs of the kids should include body-weight strength, flexibility, endurance and balance training. Core and proprioceptive training is one important aspect one must focus for a holistic approach. Cool down with calisthenics and stretches. Use of medicine balls, elastic bands, trampoline, swiss ball make exercising fun!close
  • Chronic pain

    Chronic Pain

    Chronic pain can be a real downward cycle.
    Pain increases over time, pain episodes occur more often; it can spread to other locations in the body. Pain can affect mood and become a constant companion in daily life. It slows people down because activities hurt or may hurt. They become more inactive, both physically and socially. Over time, physical inactivity leads to increased pain resulting in a recurring vicious cycle.
    This downward cycle can be stopped and turned around in many cases. With effective pain management including medication plus a personalized physical activity program and psychological help, i.e. cognitive-behavioral counselling, there is a way out of this.
    We at AktivOrtho Tm have a lot of experience in pain management and can do our part in helping you out of a chronic pain problem. close
  • Club feet
  • Coccydynia


    Coccydynia is clinically defined as painful tailbone or coccyx. This usually occurs post some injury such as fall on the buttock or due to repeated trauma on the same area.
    Major complaint may be pain over the buttock, locally at the tip of coccyx, while sitting for a long time.

    Treatment for coccydynia at AktivOrtho:

    1. Bony alignment correction - presentation of coccyx usually is the cause of the pain.
    2. Myofascial Release Therapy - for the soft tissues surrounding the area.
    3. Cryotherapy or icing
    4. Kinesio-taping - done by certified physiotherapistsclose
  • Coordination issues
  • Cramps
  • Delayed Development
  • Diabetes
  • Disc Prolapse

    Disc Prolapse

    Although it is commonly thought that a frequent cause of back pain is a disc prolapse, this is not true. In fact, many people have a disc prolapse without symptoms and others have back pain without a disc prolapse.

    What are the symptoms of a disc prolapse?

    Most often, the symptoms of a painful disc prolapse is a pain down one side of one leg. This true nerve pain is called sciatica. This can be accompanied by numbness or a muscle weakness in the leg. Very few people with a disc prolapse have loss of bladder control. If this occurs, a specialist in a hospital needs to be consulted very quickly.

    What can AktivOrtho Tm do for you?

    We at AktivOrtho Tm clarify what activities you can do safely and what activities may be difficult. With degeneration of the spine (a disc prolapse is part of the degenerative process of the spine), you will have a higher requirement to do something active for your spine to improve your muscles there. So long term, you should rather be more active than less active with your spine.

    For diagnostics, we provide a range of offerings varying from a short examination with advice on what to do best for your back to more comprehensive examinations. If you want to have a second opinion or need a professional advice about whether a surgery is required or not, we propose a very thorough examination lasting 30-45 mins including an examination of MRI's etc. A total check-up is our most comprehensive back-check, which includes not only the orthopaedic and physiotherapeutic examination, but also a computerized 3-D test of spine muscle performance.
    According to these results we can provide non-invasive active and passive treatment programs including manual therapy in addition to a training program to restore the building up of back muscles for long term pain relief.close
  • Down’s Syndrome
  • Elbow Pain


    Elbow pain and injury respond favorably to physiotherapy intervention when early treatment is sought. An accurate diagnosis is vital to the correct management of the elbow pain. Elbow pain can be caused by local muscle, tendon or bone injury. Alternatively, it can be referred from neck joints.
    Many elbow conditions can take months or even years to heal when the diagnosis is neglected early. Please do not delay in consulting our Specialist physiotherapist if you experience elbow pain.
    Common Sources of Elbow Pain:
    • Ligament injury
    • Tennis Elbow
    • Golfer’s elbow
    • Nerve injury/Pinch
    • Muscle Strain / Sprain
    • Overuse injury
    • Rheumatoid arthritis
    • DOMS (Delayed onset of muscle soreness)
    • Thoracic outlet syndrome
    • Cervical joint pain

    At AktivOrtho, How our Physio Can Help in your Treatment:

    • Early injury treatment
    • Acupuncture or Dry needling
    • Bio-mechanical analysis
    • Sub-acute Soft tissue injury treatment
    • Ergonomics
    • Joint Mobilisation techniques
    • Scapulohumeral rhythm exercises
    • Strength and stabilisation exercises
    • Sports Specific training
  • Fall-related issues
  • Finger deformity
  • Flat feet
  • Frozen Shoulder
    Frozen shoulder is a painful shoulder condition that is associated with stiffness and limitation in joint movements. There may be marked reduction in forward elevation and rotational movements in the shoulder during various daily life activities: for example while combing hair, taking something from your back pocket, dressing undressing activities, etc....Read moreclose
  • Genetic Neuromuscular conditions
  • Golf Injuries
  • Golfers Elbow
  • Groin Pull
  • Gullian Barre Syndrome
  • Hamstring Strain
  • Hand
  • Hand deformity
  • Hip
  • Hip Displasia
  • Hypertension
  • Joint Pain
  • Jumper’s Knee
  • Knee Injury
  • Knee Pain
  • Learning disability
  • Ligament tear
  • Lower Back Pain
  • Metabolism disorders
  • Mobility disorders
  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Muscle Pain

    What is Muscle pain?

    Your muscles help you move and help your body function. Different types of muscles perform different jobs. With a sedentary lifestyle the combination of poor muscular fitness and persistent bad posture causes many people to complain about tension in the neck-shoulder, in the head-neck and the lower back regions. Stress can add tension to this as well.
    Other causes of muscle pain, also called myofascial pain, are certain medicines, inflammation (e.g. myositis), nerve irritations that affect muscles and other conditions such as some infections etc.

    What can AktivOrtho do for you?

    An effective clinical examination can differentiate between muscle insufficiency, i.e. muscles that are too weak, and muscular imbalance. Muscular imbalance means that a pattern develops where some muscles become tense and shorter over time, while their opposing muscles, called antagonists, become weak.
    In most cases, muscle pain can be treated very effectively by a combination of manual therapy and active training of the affected muscles. Because these muscle patterns have been ‘learned’ and engraved over time, it is important in therapy and in training to re-train these patterns and restore a normal natural muscular balance. close
  • Muscle Strain
  • Muscular Dystrophy
  • Neck Pain

    What is neck pain?

    Pain originating in the neck can present itself in many ways. It may be a local pain in the lower neck or just below the head. It can radiate to the shoulder region, the thoracic spine, into the head, even to the forehead, and a nerve pain can cause a severe pain down one arm, even into the fingers. It can significantly restrict how much you can move your head and neck.

    What causes neck pain?

    Neck pain can be related to muscular problems, nerve irritations or degenerative findings as in a cervical disc prolapse or a cervical disc protrusion, or a combination of these. We at AktivOrtho start with a thorough clinical examination to find out what the problem is and how to address it. In most cases, a significant part of the problem is muscular.

    What can AktivOrtho  do for you?

    The type of treatment program you need will depend on the diagnosis and the factors that contribute to your pain. In many cases a combination of proper physiotherapy techniques followed by an active training approach 1 on 1 with our team will over a period of time resolve your problem. Such an approach is a safe and very powerful method to relieve neck pain long term. At AktivOrtho Tm we have skilled staff and specific computerized training devices that allow safe and effective treatment of the neck.close
  • Nerve Compression
  • Neurpathies
  • Osteoarthritis

    What is Osteoarthritis?

    Osteoarthritis (OA) describes the degeneration of a joint that involves loss of cartilage, reduction of joint space, increased bone growth (sub-chondral growth, osteophytes) around the joint and other symptoms which include pain, inflammation, morning stiffness or laxity of the joint and others. The most common causes of osteoarthritis are mechanical which can be due to many different reasons (former joint fracture, diseases of the joint, hyperlaxity due to ligament insufficiency etc.). It can occur in any joint, but most often affects large joints such as knees and hips as well as the joints in the spine and the fingers.
    Further contributing factors to increased OA are being overweight and a lack of muscular stability around the joint.

    Is it always painful?

    Degenerated joints do not always hurt. The pain sometimes fades or increases, while the degeneration itself has not changed much. Pain patterns can change and involve not only the joint itself but the muscles, ligaments and soft tissues around the joint.

    Our Solution

    In early stages of degeneration, physiotherapy combined with active medical training and home exercises is the treatment of choice. In painful inflammatory cases anti-inflammatory medication might be required. In cases of severe degeneration with a lot of pain; for many joints a total joint replacement is required.
    We, at AktivOrtho, provide a thorough clinical examination and a tailored treatment plan. In many cases this can prevent joint replacement; in other cases the active treatment can help to identify who needs surgery and who does not. This will definitely improve the results of surgery, if surgery is required.
    After possible joint replacement surgery, orthopaedic rehabilitation will be necessary to restore proper joint stability and movement.close
  • Osteoporosis


    Osteoporosis means ‘porous bones’. It is a disease where low bone mass and deterioration of bone tissues increase risk of fracture from a fall or a minor bump. It particularly affects hip, spine, wrist and shoulder and is the most common cause of broken bones in elderly.


    • Frequent pain in back, neck, leg, wrist.
    • Fragile bones that are easily fractured.
    • Debilitating acute or chronic pain often attributed to fractures from osteoporosis, which can lead to further disability.


    At AktivoOrtho we help you to restore mobility, function and confidence by providing an intensive patient specific rehabilitation programme which includes:
    • A thorough assessment including analysis of the patient’s musculoskeletal and nervous systems, balance and coordination and fall risk.
    • Based on an individual’s needs and fitness levels, we provide a personal training program that includes pain management, weight bearing exercises and strengthening of specific muscles to improve bone density and hence reduce fracture risk, balance exercises for fall prevention and postural correction.
    • We offer Metabolic Balance, a weight management program that also provides with correct nutrition to overcome calcium and vitamin deficiencies which would help in improving bone density. In addition, it also helps in reducing inflammation and improving metabolism gently and permanently.
  • Paraplegia
  • Parkinson’s Disease
    It’s a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system, causing movement disorder characterized by motor* and non-motor** symptoms...Read moreclose
  • Post Joint Replacement
  • Post-natal reconditioning
  • Post-surgical neural deficits
  • Posture problem
  • Reduced Functionality ‘Unfit’

    Reduced Functionality – ‘Unfit’

    Many of us are mentally performing on a high level but at the same time are physical "underperformers".
    Maybe we are in the recovery phase of an injury or a disease, which slow us down. Maybe it happened just over time or due to the fact that all other things were considered to be more important than looking after our body in a conscious active way.
    When we have not taken care of our body, it will eventually tell us.

    How do we find out?

    First of all, you have realized yourself that you are not able to perform as you used to. We at AktivOrtho Tm will find out, what exactly it is that is keeping you from doing what you were previously capable of doing. An effective physical examination is important. After this we will carry out a series of functional tests including computerized assessments. These test results achieved using modern rehabilitation equipment not only give us an exact picture of your current status but together with your medical history, allow us to develop a personalized program to get you back on track.

    Most of all, such tests help us to track your progress and improvement over time whether you have done your training program with us or on your own. Even after many years we are able to compare your performance against your original test results.

    Step by Step

    After the analysis of where you are right now, we will give you a tailor made program for improvement. This program takes into account any health complaints, your medical history, your present physical status and what you want to achieve: be it training for ski-ing with strong and stable knees, playing 18 holes of golf or just getting back to your normal activities of daily life after an injury or surgery.
    We at AktivOrtho Tm will guide and help you to achieve your goals, step by step.close
  • Sciatica
  • Scoliosis


    Scoliosis is a condition when there is a curve in the spine sideways. About 3 out of every 100 people have some form of scoliosis, though for many people it's not much of a problem. This curve can lead to changes in the shoulders, ribcage, pelvis, waist and overall shape of the back. The curve may be small, medium & large in size. Usually, curves that may grow to be more than 30-40 degrees can cause discomfort and thus may require a brace or a surgery to correct it.
    While the cause of scoliosis remains unknown in most cases, there is evidence of scoliosis to run in the family. So if a parent, sister, or brother had scoliosis, you might have it, too. Most types of scoliosis are more common in girls than boys, and girls with scoliosis are more likely to need treatment.
    Latest advances in the field of Scoliosis, practiced under the close supervision of our Doctors & Physiotherapists have been successfully be able to reduce these curves and promote better spine health. Rehabilitation works around careful stretches, strengthening, body mechanics and postural corrections monitored from time to time.close
  • Sensory Processing Disorder
  • Shin Splints
  • Soft Tissue Injury

    Soft tissue injury

    Soft tissue injuries include:
    • Muscle Strains
    • Ligament Sprains
    • Tendon injuries eg. tendinopathy
    • Other Soft Tissue Injuries (eg. fat, myofascial tissue, joint capsules, skin and other connective tissue)
    The best care is to seek prompt medical attention for an accurate diagnosis and its specific care. However, in the interim, we can follow the following general guidelines.
    In the first three days after injury, use the POLICE method:
    • Ice (20 to 30 minutes each two to three hours)
    • Compression (to support the injury and minimize swelling)
    • Elevation (above your heart to assist swelling reduction)
    Your chances of a full recovery will be helped if you avoid the H.A.R.M. factors in the first 48 to 72 hours.

    What are the HARM Factors?

    Heat: Increases swelling and bleeding. Avoid heat packs, a hot bath and saunas.
    Alcohol: Increases swelling and bleeding. Plus, it can delay healing.
    Running or Exercise: Aggravates the injury which increases pain, swelling and bleeding. Always check with a health professional before resume sport or exercise.
    Massage: Increases swelling and bleeding. Direct massage to the injured area may aggravate the damaged tissues and is normally best avoided for the first 48 to 72 hours. Indirect massage (away from the injury site) may be helpful. Please consult your health practitioner for the best advice for your injury.

    What is Your Subsequent Treatment?

    While the following advice is generic and may vary depending on your injury diagnosis, there are several treatment goals during the subacute phase. These include:

    Pain Relief

    It is important to ease and safely manage your pain. While natural products such as ice and over-the-counter medications may assist you, the advice of our health professionals is the safest option for you to control your pain.

    Regain Full Movement

    A primary aim of treatment once the initial trauma has settled is to regain your full joint, ligament and muscle range of motion. Our physiotherapist will identify any abnormalities and provide hands-on treatment and prescribe the relevant exercises to regain normal movement.

    Muscle Strengthening

    It is extremely important to dynamically support the muscles surrounding your injury via strengthening exercises. This is important to provide support during the early recovery phase, to prevent re-injury and return you to everyday function and sport. Our physiotherapist will prescribe and progress injury-specific exercises individualized to your needs.

    Proprioceptive Retraining

    Injury causes nerve pathway damage that affects your ability to control your joint position. The technical name for this is proprioception. Our physiotherapist is an expert in prescribing proprioceptive exercises/retraining that is specific to your functional and sport requirements.

    Heat or Ice

    Heat can be used to ease muscle soreness, increase soft tissue extensibility, increase circulation. Ice has also found to be useful even beyond the 72 hour period to reduce swelling due to excessive use and to slow your nerve conduction rate to assist pain control. If you would like advice regarding what is most suitable to you, please consult our physiotherapist.

    Professional Help at AktivOrtho:

    Seek professional assistance for your prompt return to sport, work and everyday life. After assessing your injury our expert opinion will guide your treatment for the quickest and most effective treatment outcome.close
  • Spinal Cord Injury
    A spinal cord injury (SCI) is damage or injury to the spinal cord that causes changes in its function, either temporary or permanent. These changes translate into loss of muscle function, sensation, or autonomic function in parts of the body served by the spinal cord.Read moreclose
  • Spinal disorder
  • Sports Injuries
    Different sports and exercises place different demands on the participants. With respect to this, a physical activity may extract a cost in the form of an activity-related injury. Such an injury can be broadly categorised into two types:Read moreclose
  • Sprains and Strains
  • Stress
  • Stroke
  • Tendonitis
  • Tennis Elbow
  • Tennis related injuries
  • Torticollis
  • Traumatic Brain Injury
    Trauma caused by motor vehicle accidents, falls, acts of violence, or sports injuries are few of the common causes of brain injury. Children, older adolescents/young adults (less than 25 years old), and older adults are most at risk for experiencing TBI.Read moreclose
  • Vestibular Disorders

    Vestibular disorders

    (vertigo, dizziness, nystagmus or disequilibrium)
    The vestibular system includes the parts of the inner ear and brain that process the sensory information involved with controlling balance and eye movements. If disease or injury damages these processing areas, vestibular disorders can result.
    Vestibular disorders can also result from or be worsened by genetic or environmental conditions, or occur for unknown reasons. The vestibular dysfunction occurs due to either peripheral or central vestibular pathology, with various signs and symptoms like dizziness, vertigo, nystagmus, disequilibrium.
    Studies estimated that 40% of the population over the age of 40 will experience a dizziness disorder during their lifetime.
    80% percent of people aged 65 years and older have experienced dizziness, and BPPV, the most common vestibular disorder, is the cause of approximately 50% of dizziness in older people.
    Overall, vertigo from a vestibular problem accounts for a third of all dizziness and vertigo symptoms reported to health care professionals.

    Causes of vestibular disorders:

      • Migraine or stroke can affect the vestibular system.
      • Ménière’s disease is “the idiopathic syndrome of endolymphatic hydrops.” In many cases, it is underlying cause of a vestibular disorder.
      • Head injury and advancing age are common causes of BPPV.
      • Trauma: Vestibular complaints can arise from head trauma, cervical trauma, and damage to the peripheral vestibular system.
      • Demyelinating disease : Multiple Sclerosis is an important cause of central vestibular lesions in young patients.
      • Tumors (brain stem level , Cranial nerve 8) rarely present with isolated vertigo but patients may present with episodic or positional vertigo, disequilibrium, tinnitus, and usually asymmetric hearing loss.
      • Whiplash and blows to the head are common causes of vestibular disorders in people under 50 years of age.
      • Exposure to sudden or significant pressure changes, as occur during diving or rapid descent or ascent in an aircraft, can injure the ear.
    • Advancing age can also change the vestibular system and result in balance disturbances.
    • Ear infections may also cause damage to the vestibular and hearing structures of the inner ear, including the nerves that transmit signals from the ear to the brain.
    • High doses or long-term use of certain antibiotics can be ototoxic, meaning that they cause permanent damage to the inner ear. Other drugs, such as aspirin, caffeine, alcohol, nicotine, sedatives, and tranquilizers, can cause temporary dizziness but typically do not result in permanent damage to the vestibular system.
      Most common symptom of vestibular disorder is dizziness and it can be defined as ‘sensation of whirling or feeling a tendency to fall’. Most complaints of being ‘dizzy’ can be categorised as vertigo, light-headedness, dysequillibrium or oscillopsia.
    Dizziness may be separated into:
      • Vertigo - sensation of movement, often rotary, indicating disorder of the vestibular system
    • Non-vertiginous dizziness such as: imbalance, light headedness, syncope, faintness, and other diseases.
  • Weight management
  • Wrist pain